In the attached article from Integrative Medicine, A Clinician’s Journal, Cardiology Meets Personalized Lifestyle Medicine, Jeffrey Bland, PhD says this is “an exciting time for medicine.” He writes, “We are witnessing the creation of a new approach to the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. It is an omnigenic approach—powered by systems biology— to assembling patient-specific information about how genes and lifestyle interact.” He is referring to a new field called, Cardiogenomics. Bland writes:
Cardiogenomics.a relatively new term that is being used to describe the use of genomic profiling to assess risk for cardiovascular disease. An example of the advancement in this field is the recognition that polymorphisms of specific genes such as LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 have been found to be important in establishing individual risk to cardiovascular disease. The functional impact of these genes is known to be influenced by lifestyle, dietary, and environmental factors. For example, PCSK9 was discovered through genetic studies documenting familial hypercholesterolemia, and PCSK9 protein, which is secreted by the liver, binds to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and targets it for degradation; this results in alteration in LDL signaling and apoB degradation that contributes to cardiovascular disease risk. Additional research has demonstrated that variations in both the PCSK9 and hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductase (HMGCR) genes contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist for these genes and impart varying degrees of individual risk to cardiovascular disease; it is becoming recognized that SNPs with a more mild influence on the disease phenotype are more significantly influenced by lifestyle, diet, and environmental factors.
What influences Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)?
Bland writes, “In a recent study looking at the relationship between PCSK9 genetic variants and risk to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), it was found that increased consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with a lower risk in C-allele carriers of PCSK9 rs11206510, but not in the non-C allele carriers. One important implication of this study is that in designing future clinical studies to evaluate the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, stratification for specific genetic responders versus nonresponders might be significant.
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