Extrapulmonary Manifestations of COVID-19

ABSTRACT/ Although the coronavirus is most well known for causing substantial respiratory pathology, it can also result in several extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. These conditions include thrombotic complications, myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmia, acute coronary syndromes, acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatocellular injury, hyperglycemia and ketosis, neurologic illnesses, ocular symptoms, and dermatologic complications.

Given that ACE2, the entry receptor for the causative coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is expressed in multiple extrapulmonary tissues, direct viral tissue damage is a plausible mechanism of injury. In addition, endothelial damage and thromboinflammation, dysregulation of immune responses, and maladaptation of ACE2-related pathways might all contribute to these extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19.

SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells through interaction of its spike protein with the entry receptor ACE2 in the presence of TMPRSS2 (far left). Proposed mechanisms for COVID-19 caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 include (1) direct virus-mediated cell damage; (2) dysregulation of the RAAS as a consequence of downregulation of ACE2 related to viral entry, which leads to decreased cleavage of angiotensin I and angiotensin II; (3) endothelial cell damage and thromboinflammation; and (4) dysregulation of the immune response and hyperinflammation caused by inhibition of interferon signaling by the virus, T cell lymphodepletion, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-6 and TNFα.

Here, researchers review the extrapulmonary organ-specific pathophysiology, presentations and management considerations for patients with COVID-19 to aid clinicians and scientists in recognizing and monitoring the spectrum of manifestations, and in developing research priorities and therapeutic strategies for all organ systems involved.

In this study you will learn:

  • Direct viral toxicity
  • Endothelial cell damage and thromboinflammation
  • Hematologic manifestations
  • Cardiovascular manifestations
  • Renal manifestations
  • Gastrointestinal manifestations
  • Hepatobiliary manifestations
  • Endocrinologic manifestations
  • Neurologic and ophthalmologic manifestations
  • Dermatologic manifestations
  • Special considerations for pregnancy and children
  • Future directions

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Source: Gupta, A., Madhavan, M.V., Sehgal, K. et al. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Nat Med 26, 1017–1032 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0968-3