A Rationale for an Approach to Preventing and Treating Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw With Vitamin K2 Menaquinone-4

In this article, the authors describe the Neustadt-Pieczenik Collagen Damage and Restoration Hypothesis, which proposes that medical professionals may prevent and treat osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw successfully by protecting bone collagen from damage and by stimulating production of new bone collagen. They posit that collagen…

Antioxidants: Redefining Their Roles

The cellular environment is sensitive to the presence of free radicals, which are molecules with unpaired electrons. The most common types of free radicals are formed from the elements oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and chlorine. Cells continually need to balance redox potential (the tendency to gain or lose electrons). This potential can be skewed toward oxidation (a tendency to lose electrons), called oxidative stress, or reduction (a tendency to gain electrons), called reductive stress.