As the risk of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) grows, research is looking at the role of glutathione and modulating disease risk. Joe Pizzorno ND and Joseph Katizinger ND review glutathione (GSH) and how altered GSH status has been implicated in a number of chronic, acute, and age-related diseases, as well as the aging process itself. In this review, the authors briefly describe glutathione physiology and the clinical implications of altered GSH homeostasis, as well as research on the use of various forms of glutathione as a therapeutic strategy. By Joe Pizzorno ND and Joseph Katzinger, ND, published in J of Restorative Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 1
The immune response to influenza vaccine is attenuated in elderly persons, though they are at greatest risk for morbidity and mortality by influenza virus infection. Experimental studies demonstrate that co-administration of L-cystine and L-theanine enhanced antigen-specific production of immunoglobulin in aged mice infected with influenza virus. This study thus investigated the effect of L-cystine and L-theanine on antibody induction by influenza vaccines in elderly persons. By Koichi Miyagawa, Yoshimitsu Hayashi, Shigekazu Kurihara and Akiko Maeda, published in Geriatrics Gerentology Int’l., Japan Geriatrics Society, Vol. 8.
This study was a pilot study to assess the effect of perioperatively administering oral cystine and theanine in gastric surgery patients and suggested that oral administration of these amino acids may reduce inflammation and promote recovery after gastric surgery. This study postulated that cystine and theanine would reduce excessive inflammation and immune suppression during the perioperative periods of abdominal surgeries, which decreases GSH levels in blood and skeletal muscle. The researchers examined the effects of perioperatively administering cystine and theanine on the postoperative course of gastric cancer patients undergoing distal gastrectomies as a pilot study. By Tomohiro Miyachi MD, Takashi Tsuchiya, MD et al., published in J of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 2012.
Intense exercise induces increased blood neutrophil counts and decreased lymphocyte counts, and leads to inflammation and immunosuppression. It was previously reported that cystine and theanine (CT) supplementation by long-distance runners before training camp suppressed changes of these blood parameters observed in unsupplemented control subjects after the camp. This study examined the effects of CT supplementation on the inflammatory response and the immune state before and after intense endurance exercise in long-distance runners at at training camp. By Shigeki Murakami et al, published in J or the Int’l. Society or Sports Nutrition, Vol. 7, No. 23
The common cold, an acute infection properly known as “cold syndrome,” is the most common human illness. The majority of cases of cold syndrome are acute infections of the upper respiratory tract, and its major cause is viral infection. Conventional methods of treatment use medications, such as analgesic agents and antihistamines, but these are only effective for the alleviation of symptoms, such as sneezing and runny nose. The incidence of subjects with colds during this trial was significantly lower in the CT group than in the placebo group, although the duration of the colds was not significantly different between the groups. These results suggest that CT supplementation may be useful for the prevention of the common cold. By Shigekazu Kurihara, Takenori Hiraoka, Masahisa Akutsu, Eiji Sukegawa, Makoto Bannai, and Susumu Shibahara, published in J of Amino Acids, Vol, 2010.
Men who perform resistance training 3 times a week for at least 6 months tend to have lower T-helper cell counts than non–resistance trained men. In addition, the natural killer (NK) cell count, an index of innate immunity, has been shown to decrease below the resting value after submaximal resistance exercise in both resistance-trained and non–resistance-trained men. It is a common hypothesis that resistance training impairs the immune system rather than enhancing its functions. This study examined the affects of cystine and theanine on NK cells, inflammation and immunity. By Shigeo Kawada, Kando Kobyahi, Masaru Ohtani and Chiho Fukusaki, published in J of Strength and Conditioning Research, Vol. 24, No. 3